Programs offered by a variety of organizations including regular and adult schools, libraries, correctional facilities, businesses and corporations that provide reading, writing, speaking, computation and/or problem solving skills for adults who cannot read or write at a functional level with the objective of ensuring that they have the skills necessary to find and keep decent jobs, support their children's education and participate actively in civic life.
Programs that promote pre-literacy and language development skills in children from birth to age five with the objective of preparing them to read. Program activities are both educational and social and focus on helping participants develop oral language skills, expand their vocabulary, develop the concept of a word, have exposure to printed words and connect them to stories, develop phonological and phoneme awareness (sounds associated with letters and words), and recognize letters of the alphabet and connect them to words. Specific activities that promote early literacy development include reading aloud, summarizing stories read, conversations and dialogue, learning new words, exposure to books, rhyming and singing, imitating sounds, identifying syllables, writing and naming letters, attaching sounds to letters, and recognizing words. Programs may be formal or informal, and may include parent participation. Classes are often held at schools, churches, libraries and community recreation centres.
Programs offered by libraries, local literacy councils and other organizations that provide reading, writing and mathematics instruction which targets both parents and children. The programs build on existing resources; focus on family/parent literacy, parenting skills and child development; and combine the efforts of a variety of local organizations including libraries, literacy councils, local educational agencies, institutions of higher education and other public and nonprofit agencies. Support services may include transportation, child care, nutrition assistance, meals, health care and referrals for employment services, mental health services, substance abuse and other identified needs.
Community programs that provide guided reading instruction and practice for youth who are unable to read or write at a functional level or are reading and writing below expected levels, regardless of whether they are attending school. Some programs target youth who are at risk, street involved, homeless or incarcerated; or other special populations.
The above terms and definitions are part of the Taxonomy of Human Services, used here by permission of INFO LINE of Los Angeles.